Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Semantic Web Layer Cake Core Technologies/Frameworks and Related: A Comparison In Google Trends

Semantic Web Layer Cake Core Technologies/Frameworks and Related:

A Comparison In Google Trends

Post Under Construction


Fig. 1 Updated Semantic Web Layer-Cake According To [1]

We introduce this technical report with the main components of the updated Semantic Web layer-cake technologies/frameworks according to [1]:
  • Document Serialization Types: RDF/XML, RDF N-Triples, RDF Turtle, RDF Trig, JSON-LD, N-Quads, N3-Notation3, Trix
  • Ontologies: RDF-Schema, Web Ontology Language, SKOS, Schema.org
  • Semantic Web Query Languages: SPARQL, SPASQL
  • Semantic Web Rule-based languages/standards: SWRL, SPARQL Inferencing Notation (SPIN), R2RML, SHACL
  • Semantic Web Ontologies vs Knowledge Graphs
  • Semantic Web Open Knowledge Graphs (OKG): DBpedia, WikiData, Yago, Google Knowledge Graph

Semantic Web Layer Cake main components [1]:

Fig. 2 Semantic Web Layer-Cake Core Technologies/Frameworks and Related Technologies
RDF Serialization Formats Section Ontologies/Vocabularies Section Rule Based Languages Standards Section Query Languages Section Knowledge Graphs Section Open Knowledge Graphs Sub-Section Commercial Knowledge Graphs Sub-Section Semantic Web Query Languages Sub-Section Graph Query Languages Sub-Section

Google Trends Comparison: RDF Serialization Formats

Explain the different RDF serialization formats It can be seen that Knowledge Graphs are more popular in China and in United States Ontologies and Knowledge Graphs are similarly distributed. Therefore it is not by surprise that a lot of research papers related to Knowledge Graphs are submitted by Chinese researchers.

Google Trends Comparison: RDF Schema vs Web Ontology Language OWL vs SKOS vs Schema.org

Explain RDF Schema, Web Ontology Language, SKOS, Schema.org and identify in Semantic Layer cake
  • RDF Schema (RDFS): RDF Schema stands for Resource Description Framework Schema. The current and latest version is RDF Schema 1.1 which is a W3C Recommendation on 25 February 2014. RDF Schema is normally being used to define vocabularies and taxonomies allowing the following primitives, class/subclass definition, property/sub-property definition, and utility properties. It is also used as a basis in the Web Ontology Language (OWL)
  • Web Ontology Language (OWL): OWL 2 ontologies enable the definition of classes, properties, individuals, and data values. It is a W3C Recommendation on 11 December 2012. With OWL it is possible to define class/property hierarchies, complex class relationships such as class disjointness, property restrictions and property cardinality restrictions, property chaining and so on (@@@add more)
  • Simple Knowledge Organisation System (SKOS): SKOS is a W3C Recommendation on 18 August 2009. It is used "per-se" or in combination with OWL in order to define common data models for knowledge organization systems such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading systems, and taxonomies.
  • Schema.org: although not a W3C recommendation it is a defacto standard. It is a collaborative effort with a mission to create, maintain, and promote schemas for structured data on the Internet, on web pages, email messages, organizations, places, persons, products, community extensions, and so on. Over 10 million Web sites use Schema.org to markup their content. Schemas are classified hierarchically in a set of types/properties adding a total of 829 types, 1351 properties, and 339 enumeration values. The latest release is version 8.0 on 2020-05-01


Google Trends Comparison: Semantic Web Rule-based Languages/Standards

Explain the different Semantic Web Rule-based query languages and how do they fit in the Semantic Web Layer Cake It can be seen that Knowledge Graphs are more popular in China and in United States Ontologies and Knowledge Graphs are similarly distributed. Therefore it is not by surprise that a lot of research papers related to Knowledge Graphs are submitted by Chinese researchers.

Google Trends Comparison: Semantic Web Query Languages vs Graph-based Query Languages

Explain the different Semantic Web query languages SPARQL and SPASQL and graph-based query languages Gremlin, Cypher and Graph-QL It can be seen that Knowledge Graphs are more popular in China and in United States Ontologies and Knowledge Graphs are similarly distributed. Therefore it is not by surprise that a lot of research papers related to Knowledge Graphs are submitted by Chinese researchers.

Google Trends Comparison: Ontologies vs Knowledge Graphs

Explain and define what is an Ontology and what represents and define Knowledge Graphs It can be seen that Knowledge Graphs are more popular in China and in United States Ontologies and Knowledge Graphs are similarly distributed. Therefore it is not by surprise that a lot of research papers related to Knowledge Graphs are submitted by Chinese researchers.

Google Trends Comparison: Open Knowledge Graphs

Semantic Web Open Knowledge Graphs (OKG): DBpedia, WikiData, Yago, Google Knowledge Graph

References

[1] Kingsley Uyi Idehen, "Semantic Web Layer Cake Tweak, Explained", Medium 2017 Accessed at: https://medium.com/openlink-software-blog/semantic-web-layer-cake-tweak-explained-6ba5c6ac3fab